New Method Offers Insight into Radiation Damage to DNA
lower-energy forms of radiation such as x-rays and gamma rays.
The research could help clarify the risks faced by future astronauts flying long-term missions to the moon or Mars. It was published online on March 19, in the journal Nucleic Acids Research.
The technique uses different colored fluorescent "tags" instead of radioactive ones to monitor repair of damage to DNA, life's genetic instruction molecule. Because these fluorescent tags reduce the amount of hazardous waste associated with the research (and its cost) the Brookhaven scientists, Betsy Sutherland and Brigitte Paap, now at Arizona State University, have been recognized by DOE's Office of Science for their "Best in Class" pollution prevention innovation.
"Understanding the effects on humans of radiation exposure - whether in the natural environment, in outer space, in the workplace, or due to radiation therapy - requires insight into the induction and repair of damage to DNA," says Sutherland, an expert in the study of space radiation. "It's very rewarding to come up with a new technique that helps us understand this process while at the same time reducing the waste associated with traditional techniques."
Radiation can damage the DNA "double helix" -- a two-stranded, twisting molecule -- in a variety of ways: 1) by knocking off one or more of the DNA "bases" known by the letters A, T, G, and C, which form the bonds between the two strands of the double helix; 2) by oxidizing these bases; or 3) by breaking through one or both strands. All can result in a failure of the molecule to perform its main task - telling cells which proteins to make. That can lead to out-of-control
cell growth (cancer) or death.
Cells can often repair radiation-damaged DNA, using specialized enzymes to excise and patch up the damaged segments. But damage from ionizing particle radiation appears to be harder to repair than that caused by lower-energy forms of radiation such as x-rays and gamma rays.
Scientists have long hypothesized that the reason for this difference was that the high-energy ionizing particles caused more complex damage containing many lesions close together on the DNA, leading to slower and less-accurate repair. The technique developed by Sutherland and Paap allowed them to test this hypothesis.
Using standard techniques of molecular biology, the scientists created synthetic DNA with known lesions in a variety of spatial arrangements with a red fluorescent tag attached to one end of the strand and a green fluorescent tag at the other end. They then applied a DNA repair enzyme, which clips the DNA at damaged sites. The scientists then used gel electrophoresis to separate the fragments according to their length. By looking at the red- and green-tagged
bands, and determining their length, the scientists were able to measure how well the repair enzyme recognized and repaired the DNA damage.
The results were surprising: Instead of being dependent on the number of lesions, the ability of the repair enzyme to recognize the damaged sites appeared to be most affected by the spatial arrangement of lesions on the DNA strands.
The scientists found that the enzyme readily recognized and repaired lesions on one of the DNA's two strands that occurred all to one side of a reference lesion on the opposite strand (think of it as "upstream"). These upstream lesions were successfully repaired regardless of whether there were only two or many lesions in the damage.
If the lesions occurred "downstream" from the reference lesion, however, the repair enzyme was unable to work properly, no matter whether the clustered damage was a simple, two-lesion cluster, similar to those caused by x-rays, or a complex multi-lesion cluster like those induced by space radiation. When the lesions occurred in a two-sided cluster both up and downstream from the reference lesion, again the repair enzyme worked poorly.
"Since x-rays produce about half upstream, easily repaired clusters and about half downstream, repair-resistant clusters, about half of them would be readily repaired," Sutherland says. "The heavy, charged particles in space radiation, on the other hand, produce much more complex, two-sided clusters, containing so many lesions that most of them are repair-resistant. This directional dependence of the ability to repair lesions explains why damage from charged-particle radiation, such as that encountered in outer space, is more harmful," she says.
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